Largest and most conspicuous part of the human brain.
Most of cerebrum is white matter.
Consists of nerve fibers conducting signals from one region of the cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers.
Neural integration is carried out in the gray matter of the cerebrum.
The basal nuclei are clusters of gray matter found deep within the cerebral medulla
The three pair of basal nuclei are
Series of interconnected rings that are an important center of emotion and learning.
Higher Forebrain Functions
regions that receive input directly from the sense organs or brainstem, or issue motor commands directly to the brainstem for distribution to the cranial and spinal nerves.
Primary Somesthetic (Somatosensory) Cortex
Located on the anterior edge of the parietal lobe
Functions in the interpretation of the sensation of touch from areas of the body
Primary Motor Cortex
Located on the posterior edge of the frontal lobe
Functions in the initiation of skeletal muscle contractions
This is where we plan our behavior
Consists of all regions other than the primary cortex, involved in integrative functions.
75% of the mass of the cerebral cortex is association cortex.
Upper motor neurons
These tract decussate (cross from one side of the body to the other) in the pyramids of the medulla oblongata and then continue into the spinal cord.
Lower motor neurons
The fibers from the upper motor neurons synapse with the lower motor neurons whose axons innervate the skeletal muscle.
Other areas of the brain important for muscle control
The basal nuclei assume control of highly practiced behaviors that one carries out with little thought - writing, typing, driving a car, etc.
Highly important in motor coordination
Aids in learning motor skills
Maintains muscle tone and posture as well as smooth muscle contractions
Coordinates eye and body movements
Coordinates the motions of different joints with each other
Includes several abilities - reading, writing, speaking and understanding spoken and printed words
Assigned to different regions of the cerebral cortex
Result from an interaction between areas of the prefrontal cortex and the diencephalon
The hypothalamus and amygdala play especially important roles in emotion
Acquisition and use of knowledge - sensory perception, thought, reasoning, judgment, memory, imagination, and intuition.
The prefrontal cortex is concerned with many of our most distinctive abilities, such as abstract thought, foresight, judgment, responsibility, a sense of purpose and a sense of socially appropriate behavior.